一、系统参数调优

[[email protected]:/#]vi /etc/sysctl.d/99-sysctl.conf

##added by zhoutao on 2011/10/17 
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 10240 net.ipv4.tcp_max_tw_buckets = 400000  
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 60000  
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 3  
net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 3  
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216  
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216  
net.core.rmem_default = 1048576  
net.core.wmem_default = 1048576  
net.core.somaxconn = 16384  
net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096 87380 16777216  
net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096 65536 16777216  
net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 3000  
net.ipv4.tcp_congestion_control = cubic  
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024 65535  
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1  
net.ipv4.neigh.default.unres_qlen = 6  
net.ipv4.neigh.default.proxy_qlen = 96  
net.ipv4.ip_nonlocal_bind = 1  
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 60  
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_probes = 3  
net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_intvl = 10  
fs.file-max = 360000  
net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians=1  
net.nf_conntrack_max = 25000000  
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_max = 25000000  
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_tcp_timeout_established = 180  
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_tcp_timeout_time_wait = 1  
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_tcp_timeout_close_wait = 60  
net.netfilter.nf_conntrack_tcp_timeout_fin_wait = 120  

二、文件描述符

[xxx$xxxxxx]: vi /etc/security/limits.conf

# /etc/security/limits.conf
#
#Each line describes a limit for a user in the form:
#
#<domain>        <type>  <item>  <value>
#
#Where:
#<domain> can be:
#        - a user name
#        - a group name, with @group syntax
#        - the wildcard *, for default entry
#        - the wildcard %, can be also used with %group syntax,
#                 for maxlogin limit
#
#<type> can have the two values:
#        - "soft" for enforcing the soft limits
#        - "hard" for enforcing hard limits
#
#<item> can be one of the following:
#        - core - limits the core file size (KB)
#        - data - max data size (KB)
#        - fsize - maximum filesize (KB)
#        - memlock - max locked-in-memory address space (KB)
#        - nofile - max number of open file descriptors
#        - rss - max resident set size (KB)
#        - stack - max stack size (KB)
#        - cpu - max CPU time (MIN)
#        - nproc - max number of processes
#        - as - address space limit (KB)
#        - maxlogins - max number of logins for this user
#        - maxsyslogins - max number of logins on the system
#        - priority - the priority to run user process with
#        - locks - max number of file locks the user can hold
#        - sigpending - max number of pending signals
#        - msgqueue - max memory used by POSIX message queues (bytes)
#        - nice - max nice priority allowed to raise to values: [-20, 19]
#        - rtprio - max realtime priority
#
#<domain>      <type>  <item>         <value>
#
#*               soft    core            0
#*               hard    rss             10000
#@student        hard    nproc           20
#@faculty        soft    nproc           20
#@faculty        hard    nproc           50
#ftp             hard    nproc           0
#@student        -       maxlogins       4
*       soft    nofile  65000
*       hard    nofile  65000
# End of file

三、防火墙iptables

传送门 1#

四、MySQL参数调优参考

character-set-server=utf8  
init_connect='SET NAMES utf8'  
slow_query_log=1  
slow_query_log_file=/var/log/mysql/mysql-slow.log  
long_query_time=1  
skip-innodb  
default-storage-engine=MyISAM  
#skip-grant-tables
skip-name-resolve=1  
performance_schema = OFF  
wait_timeout=60  
connect_timeout=10  
interactive_timeout=120  
expire_logs_days = 10  
key_buffer_size = 8M  
max_allowed_packet = 1M  
table_open_cache = 128  
sort_buffer_size = 512K  
net_buffer_length = 8K  
read_buffer_size = 256K  
read_rnd_buffer_size = 512K  
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 4M  
query_cache_size = 0  
query_cache_type = 0  
thread_cache_size = 4  
lower_case_table_names=1  

参数的调优,还需要与mysqltuner配合使用。

五、NGINX参数调优

# For more information on configuration, see:
#   * Official English Documentation: http://nginx.org/en/docs/
#   * Official Russian Documentation: http://nginx.org/ru/docs/
user              www users;  
worker_processes  8;  
worker_rlimit_nofile    100000;  
error_log  /var/log/nginx/error.log;  
#error_log  /var/log/nginx/error.log  notice;
#error_log  /var/log/nginx/error.log  info;
pid        /var/run/nginx.pid;  
events {  
    worker_connections  2048;
    use epoll;
}
http {  
    include       /etc/nginx/mime.types;
    default_type  application/octet-stream;
    log_format  main  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';
    access_log  off;
    error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log crit;
    server_tokens off;
    sendfile        on;
    tcp_nopush     on;
    tcp_nodelay    on;
    #keepalive_timeout  0;
    keepalive_timeout  15;
#    limit_conn_zone $binary_remote_addr zone=addr:5m;
#    limit_conn addr 100;
    client_header_buffer_size 16k;
    client_max_body_size 100m;
    large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
    client_body_temp_path /tmp;

    fastcgi_connect_timeout 300s;
    fastcgi_send_timeout 300s;
    fastcgi_read_timeout 300s;
    fastcgi_buffer_size 128k;
    fastcgi_buffers 8 128k;#8 128
    fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 256k;
    fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 256k;
    fastcgi_intercept_errors on;
    gzip  on;
    gzip_vary on;
    gzip_disable "msie6";
    gzip_proxied any;
    gzip_min_length 1k;
    gzip_buffers 4 16k;
    gzip_comp_level 4;
    gzip_types text/plain text/css application/json application/x-javascript text/xml application/xml application/xml+rss text/javascript;

    # Load config files from the /etc/nginx/conf.d directory
    # The default server is in conf.d/default.conf
    include /etc/nginx/conf.d/*.conf;
}

六、php-fpm参数调优

; Start a new pool named 'www'.
[www]
; The address on which to accept FastCGI requests.
; Valid syntaxes are:
;   'ip.add.re.ss:port'    - to listen on a TCP socket to a specific address on
;                            a specific port;
;   'port'                 - to listen on a TCP socket to all addresses on a
;                            specific port;
;   '/path/to/unix/socket' - to listen on a unix socket.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
listen = /tmp/php5socket  
; Set listen(2) backlog. A value of '-1' means unlimited.
; Default Value: -1
;listen.backlog = -1

; List of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients which are allowed to connect.
; Equivalent to the FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment variable in the original
; PHP FCGI (5.2.2+). Makes sense only with a tcp listening socket. Each address
; must be separated by a comma. If this value is left blank, connections will be
; accepted from any ip address.
; Default Value: any
listen.allowed_clients = 127.0.0.1  
; Set permissions for unix socket, if one is used. In Linux, read/write
; permissions must be set in order to allow connections from a web server. Many
; BSD-derived systems allow connections regardless of permissions. 
; Default Values: user and group are set as the running user
;                 mode is set to 0666
listen.owner = www  
listen.group = www  
listen.mode = 0666  
; Unix user/group of processes
; Note: The user is mandatory. If the group is not set, the default user's group
;       will be used.
; RPM: apache Choosed to be able to access some dir as httpd
user = www  
; RPM: Keep a group allowed to write in log dir.
group = www  
; Choose how the process manager will control the number of child processes.
; Possible Values:
;   static  - a fixed number (pm.max_children) of child processes;
;   dynamic - the number of child processes are set dynamically based on the
;             following directives:
;             pm.max_children      - the maximum number of children that can
;                                    be alive at the same time.
;             pm.start_servers     - the number of children created on startup.
;             pm.min_spare_servers - the minimum number of children in 'idle'
;                                    state (waiting to process). If the number
;                                    of 'idle' processes is less than this
;                                    number then some children will be created.
;             pm.max_spare_servers - the maximum number of children in 'idle'
;                                    state (waiting to process). If the number
;                                    of 'idle' processes is greater than this
;                                    number then some children will be killed.
; Note: This value is mandatory.
pm = dynamic  
; The number of child processes to be created when pm is set to 'static' and the
; maximum number of child processes to be created when pm is set to 'dynamic'.
; This value sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be
; served. Equivalent to the ApacheMaxClients directive with mpm_prefork.
; Equivalent to the PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment variable in the original PHP
; CGI.
; Note: Used when pm is set to either 'static' or 'dynamic'
; Note: This value is mandatory.
pm.max_children = 50  
; The number of child processes created on startup.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Default Value: min_spare_servers + (max_spare_servers - min_spare_servers) / 2
pm.start_servers = 5  
; The desired minimum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.min_spare_servers = 5  
; The desired maximum number of idle server processes.
; Note: Used only when pm is set to 'dynamic'
; Note: Mandatory when pm is set to 'dynamic'
pm.max_spare_servers = 35

; The number of requests each child process should execute before respawning.
; This can be useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries. For
; endless request processing specify '0'. Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS.
; Default Value: 0
;pm.max_requests = 600
; The URI to view the FPM status page. If this value is not set, no URI will be
; recognized as a status page. By default, the status page shows the following
; information:
;   accepted conn    - the number of request accepted by the pool;
;   pool             - the name of the pool;
;   process manager  - static or dynamic;
;   idle processes   - the number of idle processes;
;   active processes - the number of active processes;
;   total processes  - the number of idle + active processes.
; The values of 'idle processes', 'active processes' and 'total processes' are
; updated each second. The value of 'accepted conn' is updated in real time.
; Example output:
;   accepted conn:   12073
;   pool:             www
;   process manager:  static
;   idle processes:   35
;   active processes: 65
;   total processes:  100
; By default the status page output is formatted as text/plain. Passing either
; 'html' or 'json' as a query string will return the corresponding output
; syntax. Example:
;   http://www.foo.bar/status
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?json
;   http://www.foo.bar/status?html
; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be
;       anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it
;       may conflict with a real PHP file.
; Default Value: not set 
;pm.status_path = /status

; The ping URI to call the monitoring page of FPM. If this value is not set, no
; URI will be recognized as a ping page. This could be used to test from outside
; that FPM is alive and responding, or to
; - create a graph of FPM availability (rrd or such);
; - remove a server from a group if it is not responding (load balancing);
; - trigger alerts for the operating team (24/7).
; Note: The value must start with a leading slash (/). The value can be
;       anything, but it may not be a good idea to use the .php extension or it
;       may conflict with a real PHP file.
; Default Value: not set
;ping.path = /ping
; This directive may be used to customize the response of a ping request. The
; response is formatted as text/plain with a 200 response code.
; Default Value: pong
;ping.response = pong

; The timeout for serving a single request after which the worker process will
; be killed. This option should be used when the 'max_execution_time' ini option
; does not stop script execution for some reason. A value of '0' means 'off'.
; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Value: 0
request_terminate_timeout = 600

; The timeout for serving a single request after which a PHP backtrace will be
; dumped to the 'slowlog' file. A value of '0s' means 'off'.
; Available units: s(econds)(default), m(inutes), h(ours), or d(ays)
; Default Value: 0
;request_slowlog_timeout = 0

; The log file for slow requests
; Default Value: not set
; Note: slowlog is mandatory if request_slowlog_timeout is set
slowlog = /var/log/php-fpm/www-slow.log

; Set open file descriptor rlimit.
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_files = 1024

; Set max core size rlimit.
; Possible Values: 'unlimited' or an integer greater or equal to 0
; Default Value: system defined value
;rlimit_core = 0

; Chroot to this directory at the start. This value must be defined as an
; absolute path. When this value is not set, chroot is not used.
; Note: chrooting is a great security feature and should be used whenever 
;       possible. However, all PHP paths will be relative to the chroot
;       (error_log, sessions.save_path, ...).
; Default Value: not set
;chroot = 

; Chdir to this directory at the start. This value must be an absolute path.
; Default Value: current directory or / when chroot
;chdir = /var/www

; Redirect worker stdout and stderr into main error log. If not set, stdout and
; stderr will be redirected to /dev/null according to FastCGI specs.
; Default Value: no
;catch_workers_output = yes

; Limits the extensions of the main script FPM will allow to parse. This can
; prevent configuration mistakes on the web server side. You should only limit
; FPM to .php extensions to prevent malicious users to use other extensions to
; exectute php code.
; Note: set an empty value to allow all extensions.
; Default Value: .php
;security.limit_extensions = .php .php3 .php4 .php5
; Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH. All $VARIABLEs are taken from
; the current environment.
; Default Value: clean env
;env[HOSTNAME] = $HOSTNAME
;env[PATH] = /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin
env[TMP] = /tmp  
env[TMPDIR] = /tmp  
env[TEMP] = /tmp  
; Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers. These settings
; overwrite the values previously defined in the php.ini. The directives are the
; same as the PHP SAPI:
;   php_value/php_flag             - you can set classic ini defines which can
;                                    be overwritten from PHP call 'ini_set'. 
;   php_admin_value/php_admin_flag - these directives won't be overwritten by
;                                     PHP call 'ini_set'
; For php_*flag, valid values are on, off, 1, 0, true, false, yes or no.
; Defining 'extension' will load the corresponding shared extension from
; extension_dir. Defining 'disable_functions' or 'disable_classes' will not
; overwrite previously defined php.ini values, but will append the new value
; instead.
; Default Value: nothing is defined by default except the values in php.ini and
;                specified at startup with the -d argument
;php_admin_value[sendmail_path] = /usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i -f [email protected]
;php_flag[display_errors] = off
php_admin_value[error_log] = /var/log/php-fpm/www-error.log  
php_admin_flag[log_errors] = on  
;php_admin_value[memory_limit] = 128M
; Set session path to a directory owned by process user
php_value[session.save_handler] = files  
php_value[session.save_path] = /var/tmp/session  

结合平时使用中,发生的错误,观察php-fpm的日志,适当提高或者降低参数值,避免502错误。

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